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Communicable Disease – Symptoms, Types, and More

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Communicable Disease

A sickness that spreads from one person or animal to another is infectious. These communicable disease are brought on by pathogens like bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Communicable Disease or Infectious diseases can spread through contact with bodily fluids, insect bites, contaminated surfaces, water, food, or the air.

Any sickness that can spread between people or animals is infectious. Occasionally, “infectious” and “transmissible” describe communicable diseases.

The pathogens that cause infectious diseases include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.


  • A pathogen frequently starts reproducing as soon as it enters a person’s body. The person may then start to exhibit symptoms.
  • The disease will determine the specific symptoms. Some people won’t have any symptoms at all. They can still spread the infection, though.
  • The pathogen’s damage to the body’s cells is the cause of several symptoms. Others are brought on by the immune system’s reaction to the infection.
  • Some contagious illnesses may be minor, with short-lived symptoms. However, some of them can be critical and even fatal.
  • Depending on a person’s overall health and immune system, the severity of their symptoms may change.

Types and symptoms

Infection is caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, the four basic types of pathogens.


  • Viruses are microscopic pathogens with genetic material. They lack the intricate cell structure of other diseases.
  • They must infiltrate the cells of other living things to reproduce. Once inside, they duplicate themselves using the cell’s technology.


  • Single-celled, tiny creatures make up bacteria. They can be created practically everywhere on Earth, including inside people.
  • Many bacteria are benign, and some even support bodily functions. But germs can also lead to illnesses that harm the body.


  • A class of organisms known as fungi comprises yeasts, molds, and mushrooms. There are millions of various fungi. Trusted Source However, only about 300 of them are dangerous.
  • Anywhere in the body might develop a fungus infection. It typically impacts the skin and mucous membranes, though.


Microscopic organisms known as protozoa typically only have one cell.

Some protozoa are parasitic, meaning they reside on or within another organism and draw nutrition for survival from that organism. Parasitic protozoa can bring on numerous diseases.

Common infectious diseases

The following are specific bacterial, fungal, viral, and protozoal diseases:


The maximum frequent Source of the common cold, rhinoviruses, are a family of viruses. A cold may cause the following symptoms: Reliable Source:

  • a sore throat;
  • a runny or stuffy nose
  • headache

Through breathing in contaminated droplets from another person’s cough or sneeze, a person can contract a rhinovirus.

Similarly, after touching objects or surfaces that have come into contact with the virus, people with rhinoviruses touch their noses, eyes, or mouth.


  • HIV targets its host’s immune system for the attack. For example, they become more susceptible to other illnesses and infections.
  • HIV can be acquired by contact with blood or other bodily fluids contaminated with the virus.
  • HIV symptoms may appear gradually and in stages. Trusted Source They can include: fever, chills, rash, mouth sores, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, night sweats, muscle aches, and exhaustion.
  • An HIV test is a unique way for someone to know if they are infected.
  • Though there is no cure for HIV, drugs can make it undetectable or help control it. HIV can turn into AIDS if such treatment is not received.


  • The respiratory system is impacted by the vast group of viruses known as coronavirusesTrusted Source.
  • SARS-CoV-2 is a member of this family of viruses. While certain coronaviruses can have milder consequences, others can have more severe effects.

Also Read: Types of Disease – Classification, Types, and More

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